AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Volume 12 Nomor 1, Januari 2021
Bonifasia Ekta Fima Natalia
STIE Solusi Bisnis Indonesia
This research aims to find the philosophical foundation of the article "Principles of Education of
Tamansiswa at the Beginning of Its Establishment" in the book of "Ki Hajar Dewantara's Thought
and Struggle" which is published by The National Awakening Museum of the Directorate General
of Culture Ministry. This book consists of six parts, which discusses about some topics related to
KHD. The researcher chose the second part to be analyzed because it discusses the teachings of
KHD which is interesting and is relevant in recent education. The research method uses inferential
content analysis. The researcher comprehend and interpret the symbolic message in the article. The
research procedure used are the procurement of data, data reduction, inference, and data analysis.
Construct analysis is done using qualitative approach with conceptual domain. Data validity was
measured by using semantic validity and test retest reliability. The research result shows that there
are philosophical basis on education principles of Tamansiswa, philosophy of essentialism and
humanism, which is values issued in cultural or social heritage that have existed since human
civilization, for example in the among systems and trilogy leadership slogan Ing Ngarso Sung
Tulodho, Ing Madyo Mangun Karso and Tut Wuri Handayani implemented in Tamansiswa
Keywords: philosophical basis, education principles, KHD’s teaching
Education in Indonesia is inseparable from the influence of the father of Indonesian
education Ki Hajar Dewantara (KHD). Tamansiswa is a college that was founded by Ki
Hajar Dewantara which contains educational principles that prioritize young people. The
principles of Tamansiswa education are still relevant to use today. Ki Hajar Dewantara
stated that education is a means of political mobilization and at the same time as the
welfare of the people. From education will result in the leadership of the nation's people
who will lead the people and invite them to get an even education, an education that can be
enjoyed by all Indonesian people (Wiryopranoto, 2017).
According to Ki Hadjar Dewantara, education is an effort to advance the growth of
character (inner strength, character), mind (intellect) and body of the child, in the
framework of perfection of life and harmony of all humans across the world. (Dewantara,
1962: 14-15).
The world of education in entering the industrial era 4.0 experienced many changes.
Education-related policies were prepared based on demands for graduate competencies
who understand technology developments. The development of technology then changed
the way of pragmatism and changed the way of the public about education with various
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Volume 12 Nomor 1, Januari 2021
achievements. However, on a different side, people are starting to be educated, so that
there are people who are now questioning the values of noble character as the basis for the
development of character education that is reduced.
The objective of National Education based on Pancasila and Constitution Number 20
of 2003 is to develop capabilities and shape the character and civilization of a dignified
nation in the context of educating the life of the nation, aiming to develop the potential of
students to become human beings who believe and fear God Almighty, noble, healthy,
knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent, and become citizens who are democratic
and responsible.
Education has a very important role in the whole of human life. Education core
consists of interactions between humans, especially between educators and learners in
order to achieve educational goals. In the interaction involved the contents of the
interaction and the process of how the interaction took place.
Education is a community life event, in which includes aspects of communication,
material, technology, values, and human development itself (Suyitno, 2009). The study of
education not only discusses the physical aspects of humans, but also aspects of the
spiritual aspects. Educational assumptions or foundation will serve as a starting point or
foundation for teachers in implementing educational practices. Considering the nature of
education which is humanization, it is an effort to humanize humans, educators need to
understand the nature of human beings as one of its foundations. The concept of human
nature adopted by educators will have implications for the concept and practice of
The design of this research is inferential content analysis research. In content
analysis, text search is more than just theoretical and methodological studies, content
analysis is at the same time utilizing the source of the literature as study material. Content
analysis is a research technique for making inferences that can be replicated (authentic)
and validated by observing the context of the data (Krippendorf, 1991). The focus of this
research lies in the content of character education in principles of Tamansiswa Teachings
created by KHD. This study will answer the fundamental philosophical problem of
education in priciples of Tamansiswa. Data collection techniques in the form of article
texts are supported by theories that are relevant to researchers as the main instrument
(Zuchdi, 2019). The validity of the data used is semantic validity, which aims to present
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Volume 12 Nomor 1, Januari 2021
the information contained in the data analyzed in the context of educational philosophy.
Analytical constructs are made to identify, evaluate and examine data using standards used
to compare the results of research (Zuchdi and Afifah, 2019). Text data analyzed in this
study are in the form of an article entitled "Principles of Tamansiswa Education at the
Beginning of Its Establishment" written by Djoko Marihandono in a book entitled
"Thought and Struggle of Ki Hajar Dewantara" published by the National Awakening
Museum of the Directorate General of Culture Ministry of Culture. Strauss and Corbin in
Zuchdi and Afifah (2019) suggest the use of analytical tools, which are thinking techniques
used by researchers to facilitate coding.
Tamansiswa, which stands for Tamansiswa National Movement, which is an
educational institution founded by Ki Hajar Dewantara in July 1922 in Yogyakarta. On
January 6, 1923 the Tamansiswa National Movement was declared a "free endowment".
This institution was handed over by Ki Hadjar Dewantara on August 7, 1930 to the
Tamansiswa Foundation, based in Yogyakarta. Tamansiswa School emerged as a "national
education college".
Ki Hajar Dewantara's real name is RM Soewardi Soerjaningrat, since establishing
Tamansiswa changed his name to Ki Hajar Dewantara to be more modest and able to blend
in with the indigenous community. During the Dutch colonial period, the right to education
was only for the Dutch or the elite, priyayi or noble, including RM Soewardi Soerjaningrat,
who was the son of GPH Soerjaningrat and grandchildren of Pakualam III. By establishing
Tamansiswa, Ki Hajar Dewantara wanted to provide opportunities for the aboriginal
people to be able to obtain the right to education as did the nobility and the Dutch people.
Ki Hajar Dewantara fought for Indonesian independence through education.
In his article, Marihandono (2017) explains that the principles of Tamansiswa
education are (1) the right to self-determination; (2) independent students; (3) education
that enlightens the community; (4) education must cover a wide area; (5) struggle demands
independence; (6) self-defense system; and (7) children's education.
Tamansiswa's educational principles are based on the philosophy of essentialism.
Essentialism considers education to be based on values embedded in the cultural or social
heritage that has existed since human civilization. Ki Hajar Dewantara’s teaching is that
students must respect the nation's cultural heritage. In Tamansiswa education, cultural
heritage is taught through language, history, morals, music, dance and so on
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Volume 12 Nomor 1, Januari 2021
(Marihandono, 2017). At Tamansiswa College, mother tongue is used as the language of
instruction. With the use of mother tongue as an introduction to education that will have an
impact on carrying out religious worship, the elimination of games and songs of Dutch
children and replace them with a national model. If there is no pure mother tongue, (as in
Batavia, for example), a new Malay language called Indonesian is used as an introduction.
Mastery of the people's own language becomes the first condition because only then can
the people feel their own culture. If education goes well, cultural transfer will inevitably
occur (Marihandono, 2017).
The philosophy of humanism also underpins Tamansiswa education. This institution
rejects the notion of "teaching" in the sense of "intentional formation of the character of
children" with three terms "government - obedient - orderly". The teaching method
adopted requires comprehensive attention which is a condition for self-development for the
development of character, body and soul of children. This attention is referred to as the
"system of circles" (Marihandono, 2017). The among system concept is to educate,
guard and guide lovingly. In the Ki Hajar Dewantara’s concept, how to educate with
orders, coercion and punishment will be replaced with guidance and support for children in
the education process. An educator or teacher will draw closer to the natural environment
and society that will make children think positively.
In the among system, the teacher gives guidance, but by still giving freedom to
students in accordance with the natural code of the students. Students have independence
in the education process so that students can grow into creative and critical individuals.
The among system that being proposed had the meaning that children would grow
freely. Tut Wuri Handayani mandate must mean to follow and influence so that foster
children can walk in a good direction. With this among systems, it is free for children to
develop their talents and students always find their own way without waiting for orders
from their superiors.
Tamansiswa has a leadership trilogy slogan implemented by Ki Hajar Dewantara
namely Ing Ngarso Sung Tulodho, Ing Madyo Mangun Karso and Tut Wuri Handayani.
Ing Ngarso Sung Tulodho has the understanding that an educator should be able to stand in
the front as a leader who sets an example, role model or role model. The easiest way to
lead an army is to set an example and the easiest way to set an example is to practice what
you preach. Ing Madyo Mangun Karso means an educator should be able to position
himself among his students as friends who encourage, inspire interest, build intention. By
walking together in the midst of students, an educator knows very well what is happening
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Volume 12 Nomor 1, Januari 2021
during the education process and understands how students feel. For example, when
students fall or experience obstacles, educators can encourage them to get back on their
feet. Whereas Tut Wuri Handayani means an educator must also be able to stand behind
and encourage his students. Moral encouragement and motivation is very necessary for
students to keep going forward and not give up. The motto of Tut Wuri Handayani is the
behavior of the tutor or teacher who is freeing students to do something in accordance with
their desires and desires, as long as it is still in accordance with reasonable norms and does
not harm anyone.
By applying the trilogy of leadership, an educator must be able to be an example,
encouraging and motivating his students. Ki Hajar Dewantara's motto is phenomenal in the
world of education and is the pride of the Indonesian people in the world. Some countries
even adopted this teaching. Although the concept of leadership trilogy was raised in the
century, it is still up to date to be applied today.
The teachings of the father of national education, Ki Hajar Dewantara, had a
profound impact on Indonesia's education. The principles of education that he coined and
applied in Tamansiswa colleges are the right to self-determination, independent students,
education that enlightens the community, education must cover a wide area, the struggle
for independence, self-defense system, and children's education. The right to self-
determination takes into account the demands of togetherness from a harmonious society,
not dependent on other people or other groups. This is in line with the National Education
Goals based on Pancasila and Constitution Number 20 Year 2003, to develop the potential
of students to become people of faith and to fear God Almighty, have good morality, be
healthy, have good knowledge, be capable, capable, creative, independent, and become
democratic and responsible citizens.
The philosophical basis that underlies the principles of Tamansiswa education is the
philosophy of essentialism, where essentialism views education as having to stand on
values embedded in cultural or social heritage that have existed since human civilization.
Ki Hajar Dewantara was proud to promote Indonesian culture even though at that time
Indonesia was under Dutch colonialism. Education is only the right of the elite or the
nobility. In Tamansiswa colleges, educators play a role as tutors that is someone who
educates, guides and sets an example. This system is known as the system among, where
educators provide freedom for their students to develop. At Tamansiswa College, the
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Volume 12 Nomor 1, Januari 2021
trilogy of leadership applied by Ki Hajar Dewantara was also implemented, namely Ing
Ngarso Sung Tulodho, Ing Madyo Mangun Karso and Tut Wuri Handayani. The concept
of education requires an educator to be able to have three roles, namely standing in front as
a leader who provides an example for their students, standing in the middle of the students
as a friend for them who encourage, and standing behind giving encouragement to their
students. If this concept is applied, then an ideal education is achieved that realizes
independent, creative and critical students.
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