AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1069
IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ READING FLUENCY OF RECOUNT TEXT
THROUGH MULTIMEDIA RUNNING TEXT AT THE TENTH GRADE OF SMA
NEGERI 1 GUNUNGSITOLI IN 2022/2023
Agusman Hulu
1
, Adieli Laoli
2
, Afore Tahir Harefa
3
, Elwin Piarawan Zebua
4
1, 2, 3, 4
Undergraduate Thesis, Univeritas Nias
Jl. Yos Sudarso,Ombalata Ulu, Kota Gunungsitoli, Sumatera Utara 22812
1
2
3
4
ABSTRACT
The method used in the research was one qualitative research is classroom action research. The
purpose of this research is to improve the students reading fluency of recount text through
multimedia running text at the tenth grade of SMA Negeri 1 Gunungsitoli in 2022/2023. Based on
the result of the data in cycle I showed that there are 17 students in fair level (47%), there are 12
students in fairly good level (33%), there are 2 students in good level (5,60%), and there are 5
students in very good level (14,00%) and the average of students’ value is 62,6. Cycle II, there are
19 students in very good level (53%), there are 17 students in excellent level (47%) and get the
average of students value is 87,36. It means that the students’ ability in reading fluency of recount
text through multimedia running text in cycle II is success. Based on the result of the study, it can
be concluded the multimedia running text improves the students’ reading fluency of the tenth grade
of SMA Negeri 1 Gunungsitoli.
Keyword: Reading Fluency, Multimedia Running Text, CAR.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 CC BY-SA International License.
INTRODUCTION
Reading is a skill used to understand and interpret handwriting as written text, such
as books, magazines, newspapers, articles, and other documents. While reading, we can
absorb some information. Reading is extremely important and increasingly becomes a
daily necessity for anyone who wants to get the necessary information. Reading is an
important skill for learners of English as a foreign language. For most learners, this is the
most important skill to master to ensure success not only in learning English but also in
taking any content class that requires reading in English. As Nunan in Setiawati (2021)
explains that “reading is a fluent process that allows the reader to combine a variety of
information from the reading text and the background knowledge they know before
reading to form meaning”.
In learning English, to get good reading skills, students must have a good reading
level. Reading fluency is important because it helps students better understand the material
they are reading, improves their overall reading skills, and motivates them to read more. It
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1070
is supported by Rasinski (2020) who states that “reading fluency is an important reading
skill because it helps students develop better comprehension, enjoy reading and increase
reading motivation”.
Reading fluency is the ability to read quickly, accurately, with correct intonation.
Reading fluency involves the ability to read text fluently, without stuttering or pausing, and
with appropriate intonation patterns. According to Hasbrouck (2016) states that "reading
fluency is a key factor in helping students better understand the material they are reading".
In addition, Fuchs (2018) points out that “reading fluency is essential for effective English
learning and can help students absorb more information in less time.”
It can be concluded that reading fluency is an important skill that students must have
to improve their comprehension and effectiveness in learning English. According to
Hudson, et all (2000) in Paige (2020) say fluent reading Consists of three key elements
namely accurate reading of connected text at a conversational, rate and prosody or
expression”.
In syllabus of Curriculum (2013) at the tenth grade of SMA Negeri 1 Gunungsitoli in
reading. In the competency standard, students can read simple and complex short
functional texts to obtain specific and global information by understanding textual
elements, such as objectives, topics, main ideas, references, and word meanings. The
Minimum Competence Criterion (MCC) that is decided at the tenth grade of SMA Negeri
1 Gununsitoli is 75. It confirms that the students should get mark 75 or more in order that
they can pass on the subject. However, there are three indicator of reading fluency namely
accuracy, rate, prosody. Furthermore, According to Tomlison (2019), the average
maximum reading speed of a person is 120-150 words/minute. As such, accuracy is also
related to correct pronunciation and the sequence of interpreting expressions as they read
the text.
In fact, Based on the preliminary observation by the researcher in SMA Negeri 1
Gunungsitoli, most of the students unable to read more fluent especially in recount text, the
students unable to pronounce the word when they read the text or lack of pronunciation
and the students unable to show the meaning expression. This problem is caused by
various factors, such as students' lack of reading ability, lack of experience reading in
English, or lack of adequate use of instructional media.
To overcome this problem, researchers need to find appropriate media, because
providing good learning media will make the learning process go well. To help students
learn to read, especially reading fluency, the researcher applies appropriate media, is
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1071
multimedia running text. Ho (2004) in Huckabae (2013) states that "multimedia running
text is scrolling text with background sound to stimulate the reader's struggle". Multimedia
used in reading fluency activities in front of friend’s combines’ text, audio, and some
visual elements. Texts are taken from textbook material or other sources related to the type
of text being taught. The audio is synthesized using the latest technology called TTS (text
to speech) application that converts text to audio in the output. In addition, visuals are used
to make multimedia more enjoyable without disturbing the student's concentration during
fluency reading activities.
METHODS
Kind and Research Design
In this research the researcher used qualitative research. Qualitative research is a
research method that aims to gain an understanding of complex phenomena by exploring
the subjective experiences, perceptions, and meanings of the participants. It involves
collecting non-numeric data such as text, images, and observations, and analyzing them
using various techniques such as topic analysis, sound theory. According to McMilan &
Schu Macher in Anas, et al (2022), states that qualitative research is mainly defined as an
inductive process for organizing data into categories and determining relationships
between categories.
The object in conducting this research that is to know the improvement reading
fluency of recount text by using multimedia running text at the tenth Grade of SMA Negeri
1 Gunungsitoli. The subject of this research was the tenth grade students especially X
Mipa-1 which consisting of 36 students. There were 22 boys and 14 girls. The location of
the research is SMA Negeri 1 Gunungsitoli which is located in Pendidikan Street No.03,
Gunungsitoli District, Gunungsitoli City. This research has been carried out in cycles. The
number of cycles depends on the success of the actions given during the activity. Based on
classroom action research procedures, this research would conduct for 1 month in May-
June 2023.
In this study, the author tried to apply one of the qualitative research types, class
action research (CAR), to help research to solve students' reading problems, especially to
improve their reading fluency in recount texts. According to Carr & Kemmis (McNiff
1991) in Mu'Alimin (2018) indicates that action research in the classroom is a form of self-
reflective investigation conducted by participants in social situations to improve the
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1072
rationality and equity of their own educational or social practices, their understanding of
those practices, and the situations (and institutions) in which the practice is practiced.
The classroom action research is applied in the process of teaching and learning
activities in the classroom, to improve teaching and learning process activities, with the
aim of improving or updating learning practices to make them more effective. However,
the structural model classroom action research (CAR) will be adapted by Kurt Lewin in
Mu'Alimin (2018). The main concept of this action research consists of four components,
namely planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Furthermore, the steps are carried out
sequentially and doing in cycle.
a. Planning
In planning step, the researcher prepare all the needs in conducting the research, such
as; syllabus, lesson plan, teaching material, table of specification, validity sheet,
observation sheet for the researcher and students, field notes, test, attendance list.
b. Action
In action step, the researcher apply Multimedia Running Text, with using Projector
and Laptop in the teaching-learning process in the classroom.
c. Observation
In observation step, the English teacher-collaborator observed the students’ activity
and the researcher’s activity in the classroom during the teaching-learning process.
d. Reflection
In the step, the researcher together with the English teacher-collaborator noted,
analysed, and evaluated the result of observation and looks for the way out to improve
the students’ weakness in studying reading proficiency especially reading fluency.
Data Collecting Technique
Data collection techniques are qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data were
obtained by interviewing students and teachers as well as by observing during the
teaching-learning process and during the action taken in the field. Data are provided in the
form of field notes and interview transcripts. Data collection tools were interview guides,
observation sheets, and field notes.
In addition, quantitative data in the form of students' reading fluency scores were
collected through the Reading Fluency Assessment. The first is a pre-test. It is conducted
to learn more about students' reading fluency. The second is half. It was done to find out if
there was a significant improvement in students' reading fluency before and after applying
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1073
multimedia texts in first grade. After reflecting the student's midterm test results, the latest
data is collected by taking the follow-up test. The following test is intended to assess
whether there is a significant improvement in a student's reading fluency.
Instrument of the Research
To conduct the research, the types of instrument that used by the research are test
instrument and non-test instrument. The test instrument involve reading fluency
assessment and reading scoring rubrics. Meanwhile, the non-test instrument were
interview, observation sheet.
Technique of data analysis
Data collection techniques are qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data were
obtained by interviewing students and teachers as well as by observing during the
teaching-learning process and during the action taken in the field. Data are provided in the
form of field notes and interview transcripts. Data collection tools were interview guides,
observation sheets, and field notes. To analyze and evaluate the data qualitative through
formula as Arikunto in Asrori (2020):
In which:
P = Percentage of student learning activity level
F = Total value of the level of student learning activity
N = Total value of the ideal student learning activity level
The quantitative data was analysed the students reading fluency data. To
analyze the data assessment criteria from teacher and students’ during the learning
process in the classroom. The following formulas (Arikunto in Asrori, 2020):
P =
Note : nm : Number of checking aspects
N : Total criteria of assessment aspects
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1074
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Result
1. The Result of Cycle I
a) Planning
In cycle I, the researcher prepare many things, such as; the lesson plan, students
attendance list, material, observation sheet (for the researcher and the students’),
field notes and evaluation sheet.
b) Action
After planning, the researcher conducted the action in the classroom. The
researcher continued the first meeting activities. It was the discussion and evaluated
the students’ reading fluency of recount text by using multimedia running text.
The researcher greeted the students and all of the students respond it. Then, the
researcher checked the students’ attendance list. All the students were present. The
researcher asked the students to continue the discussion about the material. The
students followed the researcher instruction. After the discussion is finished the
researcher distributed the evaluation to the students in text by using multimedia
running text. The researcher invited the students to read the text individually. But some
of the students did not do the task individually. The researcher walked around the
classroom to make sure that all of the students did the task is read text by using
multimedia running text. However, some of the students read the text in different time
to read the text.
When the students read the text individually, the researcher assessed by crossing
every single mispronounced when they read the text, how many time they need read
the text and how their prosody or meaning expression when they read the text. The
researcher made discussion with the students about the answer. The students gave their
opinion about the answer related they difficult in reading fluency about mispronounce
the word. The researcher took the conclusion and closes the meeting by greeting the
students.
c) Observation
The results of the observation during the teaching-learning process in the Cycle I as
follows:
1) The Researcher Activities
Based on the result of observation of the researcher activities from the cycle I,
can be describe in the table below:
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1075
Table 1. The Researcher Activities In the Cycle I
Cycle
Meeting
Criteria
Frequency
Percentage%
I
Second
meeting
Done
14
82%
Undone
3
18%
2) The Students Activities
Based on the result of the observation of the students activities, so can be
classified in the table below:
Table 2. The Students’ Activities In the Cycle I
Cycle
Meeting
Frequency
Percentage%
I
Second
meeting
369
74%
135
26%
Based on the result of the observation sheet by the research activities above,
the percentage the activities during the learning process in cycle I can be seen in
graphic below:
Graphic 1. The Percentage of the Researcher Activities In Cycle I
Based on the result of the observation sheet by the students’ activities above,
the percentage the activities during the learning process in cycle I can be seen in
graphic below:
Graphic 2. The Percentage of the Students Activities In Cycle I
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1076
c) Reflection
In the second meeting in Cycle I, the researcher examined the students’ reading
fluency of recount text by using multimedia running text. The result of their evaluation
is explained in table below:
Table 3. The Percentage of the Students’ Ability in Reading Fluency of Recount Text
through Multimedia Running Text in cycle I
Mcc
Students
Value
Frequency
Level
Percentage
%
Classification
75
56
17
56-60 (Fair)
47%
Unsuccessful
86%
60
12
60-70 (Fairly
Good)
33%
70
2
70-75 (Good)
5,60%
75
5
75-90 (Very
Good)
14,00%
Successful
14%
90
90-100
(Excellent)
Total
36
100%
The table above explained that the categorized of percentage the student’s ability in
reading fluency of recount text through multimedia running text in cycle I could not
pass the MCC at that school is 75. It’s showed that there are 17 students in fair level
(47%), there are 12 students in fairly good level (33%), there are 2 students in good
level (5,60%), and there are 5 students in very good level (14,00%), and the average the
students’ value was 62,6. It means that the students’ ability in reading fluency of
recount text through multimedia running text in cycle I is Failed. Where can be
classified there are 86% the students who where could not reach the MCC, and there are
14% the students who where could be reach the MCC at that school. It means that the
students still not increase their ability in reading fluency of recount text through
multimedia running text.
The result of the students’ ability in Cycle I can be viewed in the graphic below:
Graphic 3. The Percentage of the Students’ Ability in Reading Fluency of
Recount Text through Multimedia Running Text in cycle I
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1077
Based on the explanation above, the researcher concluded that the students’ ability
in reading fluency of recount text through multimedia running text was still unable
improve the students’ ability in cycle I. it was indicated by looking at the Minimum
Competence Criterion (MCC) of the English subject at the tenth grade which was 75
could not be achieve by the students by looking the average of the students’ value
above. From the result in cycle I, the researcher wanted to continue conducting the
teaching learning process to the students in the cycle II.
2. The Result of Cycle II
a) Planning
There were some preparation that the researcher prepared before doing the action in
the Cycle II. The researcher prepared lesson plan, reading text, evaluation sheet for the
researcher and students’ activities, students’ evaluation sheet, and field note.
b) Action
The researcher did the action after making sure that everything has been prepared
well. The researcher did the teaching learning process in the classroom which consisted
of pre-teaching learning activities, whilst-teaching learning activities, and the post-
teaching learning activities. The researcher entered the classroom and greeted the
students. All of them gave good response. Then, the researcher checked the students’
attendance list. The students were present. Then, the researcher reminded the students
about the last material. The students gave their response and then the researcher
concluded about the student’s response.
After the discussion is finished, the researcher distributed the evaluation sheet to
the students. In this meeting the researcher evaluated the students when they doing the
reading test by using multimedia running text. The researcher walked around the class
to make sure that the students to evaluate them. In this activities, the researcher
evaluate the reading fluency of the students when they read the text with identify the
three aspect of reading fluency namely accuracy, rate and prosody. The researcher gave
notes for every students based on the aspect above. After all the students done doing
the reading test, the researcher gave the time for the students so post question.
After they has finished, the researcher did not forget to ask the students’ difficulties
about the material. After taking the conclusion, the researcher ended the class by
greeting the students.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
1078
d) Observation
The observation was done by the English teacher (teacher-collaborator) during the
researcher implemented the actions in the classroom. The teacher collaborator observed
all of the activities happening in teaching-learning process, involved the student’s and the
researcher’s activities as follows:
1) The Researcher Activities
Based on the result of observation of the researcher activities from the cycle II,
can be classified in the table below:
Table 4. The Researcher Activities In the Cycle II
2) The Students Activities
Based on the result of the observation of the students’ activities, can be classified
in the table below:
Table 5. The Students’ Activities In the Cycle II
Cycle
Meeting
Criteria
Frequency
Percentage%
II
Second
meeting
Done
504
100%
Undone
-
-
Based on the result of the observation sheet by the research activities above,
the percentage the activities during the learning process in cycle II can be seen in
graphic below:
Graphic 4. The Percentage of the Researcher Activities In Cycle II
Based on the result of the observation sheet by the students’ activities above,
the percentage the activities during the learning process in cycle