AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
Ana Fergina
, Yuline
, Amallia Putri
1, 2, 3
Bimbingan dan Konseling, Universitas Tanjungpura
Jl. Prof. H. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78124
Extensive reading material is reading material that can help students improve their reading skills in
speed and increase vocabulary. Some reading materials discuss professional occupations such as
doctors and teachers. However, not many introduce unskilled work, even though this work is an
existing job and has even existed for generations. This research on the development of extensive
reading materials aims to produce a book product on the types of untrained/academic work. This
book introduces these types of unskilled jobs in West Kalimantan. As reading material, this book is
an alternative reading in English with vocabulary that are easy to understand in the local context.
This book is used as supplementary reading material for Tanjungpura University’s students.
Keyword: Extensive Reading, Unskilled Jobs.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 CC BY-SA International License.
In the 4.0 era, almost all sectors are adapting to technological developments. It is also
inseparable from the education sector, especially in teaching English. Mastery of English
actively and passively affects someone's skills in the world of work. Someone with foreign
language skills, one of which is English, can determine the work to be carried out in the
future, in addition to the criteria for someone's graduation. Therefore, English language
skills are indispensable in the world of work.
The terms trained and unskilled work are based on several factors. Among them is
the educational aspect achieved. Trained jobs usually require special education to do their
jobs, such as teachers. While unskilled jobs do not require special skills in their work, it
means that everyone can do it. The result of the project carried out by Australian
manufacturing skills for three years is one of the people's perceptions of trained work or
not seen from the education one gets (Smith, Smith, Hampson, and Junor, 2015). Smith et
al. added that the 'visibility of the job to the public' is also one of the factors that the job is
included in unskilled work, such as cleaning.
From various perspectives on work, many in our society do not understand whether
the job is a trained job or not. Even at the student level, they don't know the type of work.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
In the material at school, a lot of the work displayed is a trained job. In reality, there are
still many unskilled jobs that people do not consider jobs. For this reason, developing
reading books (extensive reading) that contain untrained work can help students know the
types of work in the community. In addition, jobs that are considered low-level jobs can be
upgraded to trained jobs with technology development. The development of extensive
reading on unskilled work can also be regarded as a job that has existed traditionally or is
hereditary and can be learned from the training obtained.
Teaching English affects the level of students' interest in reading. According to
Sulistiyo (2009), there are several factors that influence the difficulty of teachers in
teaching English in Indonesia. The first is the number of classes. The average class
accommodates 40 students, but most are more than that. This large number of classes
affects students' motivation in learning which is the second factor, plus English lessons are
only available 2-3 hours per week.
Furthermore, the third factor is that the lesson focuses only on reading skills by
ignoring other skills (Sugirin, 1999). More depressing is the focus on passing the test so
that the focus is on learning the rules of English, not for communication (Sawir, 2005 in
Sulistiyo, 2009).
This factor is in line with the opinion of Bradford (2007) where teaching in Indonesia
is less effective due to class factors, student motivation, and teacher quality in preparing
education in the classroom.
With the existing conditions in the field, this study will try to solve this problem by
providing alternative teaching materials such as Extensive Reading (ER). According to
Tomlinson (2005), teaching materials in Indonesia focus on teaching grammar. One way to
improve language skills is to provide input, namely with ER.
Day and Bamford (1998) define ER as a process of reading in large numbers and
focusing on the convenience of the reader rather than the language aspect. In ER students
are directed to read alone in class, not required to discuss. One of the characteristics of ER
is reading books at the same level or below the level of students. In reading, students do
not need to open the dictionary as often as possible.
Previous research has also revealed the benefits of ER in increasing the number of
new vocabulary and reading speed (Aka, 2019; He, 2014; Liu and Zhang. 2018; Renandya
and Jacobs, 2016; Suk, 2017). In Japan, a one-year reading program can provide
significant input for students. By reading various types of books, students can increase the
vocabulary they have and indirectly improve other English skills.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
Day and Bamford (2002) provide ten ER principles for developing teaching
materials. This principle is the basic foundation for researchers in developing these
teaching materials. The ten principles are:
1. Reading material is easy;
2. Availability of reading materials with various topics;
3. Language learners are free to choose the book they want to read;
4. Students read as much as possible
5. Purpose and reading is usually for pleasure, information, and general insight.
6. Reading serves as a reward at the same time;
7. Reading tends to be fast, not slow;
8. Read alone and quietly;
9. The teacher introduces extensive reading and guides the students;
10. The teacher acts as a role model.
From these ten basic foundations, developers of teaching materials then design
creatively so that the learning process can occur optimally. Renandya (2007) stated that
extensive reading can be used as an activity outside the classroom by asking students to
find their favorite reading. If implemented in the school, the teacher can set aside a
particular time (e.g., 15-30 minutes) so that students can read books individually. This
process is uninterrupted, including discussion and answering questions. So students just
read and are immersed in their reading imagination. Renandya also suggested that teachers
vary their activities after reading, not always asking them to write summaries. Students can
be asked to describe a character they like or tell a part they enjoy through role play. In this
study, students or readers are provided with a reflective activity at the end of the reading
where they can evaluate each chapter of what they read. They can rate each chapter and
write the part or scene they like the most.
The low habit of reading English books seems to be an issue faced by students in
Indonesia, but in many countries in Asia. One of the reasons why reading becomes difficult
for students from Asian countries is because there are few elements of local wisdom in
textbooks. As a result, students read something foreign to them. This statement was later
confirmed by Shin, Eslami, & Chen (2011) who reviewed 25 English textbooks published
globally. Their findings reinforce the claim that the cultural dominance of English-
speaking countries is still influential in every book. The writing team believes that if this
aspect of "local content" is added, it can help students understand reading more efficiently,
especially beginners.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
In the Indonesian context, aspects of local wisdom are also rarely shown in English
textbooks (Hermawan & Noerkhasanah 2012). Even if there is, a small portion of
information about local culture is presented. The topic of local culture is only used in the
use of names of people and places without any further efforts to promote the authentic
culture. Therefore, the need for books that promote local culture but are written in English
is urgent.
In addition to culture, work that describes the characteristics of a particular area can
also promote the region. Fergina &Oktavianda (2019) designed an extensive reading book
on traditional games of West Kalimantan to support the culture. West Kalimantan itself is
a province consisting of various ethnic groups, mostly from the Dayak, Malay, and
Chinese. There are still several other tribes who come from various regions in Indonesia,
such as Java, Madura, Bugis, and others. With this many tribes, there will be many
traditional done or from generation to generation without going through special education.
Some textbooks in schools more often display the types of work that are commonly done
by the community and professionals such as doctors, teachers, etc. Therefore, introducing
these types of untrained/educated jobs can inform the reader that this job has existed for a
long time and is not considered a low-level job.
This study the topic of the types of unskilled work carried out by people in West
Kalimantan. In this study, the resulting product is a book entitled Unskilled Jobs in West
Kalimantan. This book provides an overview of the many types of unskilled work as
teaching materials for English language education. The systematics of Unskilled Jobs in
West Kalimantan are as follows;
1. Job Profile
One aspect of this book is the job profile. This section will provide an overview of the
workforce who do a job in terms of the reasons for taking this job to the expectations
that will be achieved in the job.
2. Vocabulary corner
In this section, each chapter will provide difficult vocabulary and its meaning.
This research was conducted in Pontianak. Participants are new Tanjungpura
University students taking English courses for the 2020/2021 academic year from various
faculties and majors.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
Data collection in this study was carried out in several stages.
a. Analysis Stage
The first step in developing teaching materials was the analysis stage. Aldoobie (2005)
states that several processes are passed in the development of teaching materials, namely
Need Analysis, learner analysis and task analysis.
In the Need Analysis stage, researchers investigated what needs were needed in the
university student's extensive reading program. Then this need was continued by looking at
the needs of students. What books do students often read? To find out, the researcher gave
a questionnaire. The last was task analysis, which was to match the willingness and needs
of students by determining the objectives of the teaching materials being developed.
b. Design Stage
At this stage the researcher will design reading material based on a survey conducted to
c. Development Stage
At this stage, the researcher will make reading material and then review it by linguists
and experts in the field of economics to see the suitability of the content and the field.
Aldoobie (2015) asserts that book makers can ask their supervisors, superiors or
colleagues for advice and opinions
In the first phase of needs analysis, participants were given a questionnaire
containing three main topics that they had to fill out. The first section includes information
on the faculty, their age, and their years of studying English. All participants are first-
semester students. Most of them have studied English for more than six years in formal
school, but they still find it very difficult to understand English. Few of the remaining
participants turned out to have studied English for only about 1-3 years, which means that
they had just learned English since attending high school.
In the second part of the needs analysis, the researcher asked questions about their
reading habits in English. Understanding reading in this context is not only limited to
physical books, but also readings in English which they access through social media (such
as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) as well as several reading applications such as padlet,
readworks, and others. The questionnaire results show that 38% of students admit spending
more time to reading on social media. Very few of them read lecture textbooks as can be
seen from the results of the questionnaire that these students only spent about 30 minutes
to 2 hours reading something in English. Very few of them read in 6 hours a day in
English, which is 6%.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
Figure 1. Source of books being read
Furthermore, figure 2 shows the number of books students read in a month. Based on
these results, it is known that as much as 22% of the participants admitted that they never
read a book in a month. As many as 23% can only read one book for a month. Very few
students, 4%, read more than ten books a month.
Figure 2. Number of books being read
The data in the second part also provides information about the difficulties they often
face when they have to read English texts. As many as 35%% of students think they have
difficulty understanding the meaning of the vocabulary in the reading material. On the
other hand, as many as 7 students out of 74 total respondents complained that the reading
they read was not fun. A total of 7 people also said that the reading material presented was
too long, so they took a long time to finish one reading material. This results in their loss of
interest in reading longer.
In the third part of this needs analysis survey, the researcher asked questions about
the book to be developed. Several questions were asked to see to what extent students were
aware of the types of jobs in West Kalimantan that were still occupied by the local
community. Most of them know the types of trained jobs (61%) and unskilled (10%). A
total of 18 students answered that they knew of trained and untrained work from their
income, followed by 16% of their work volume and 6% of their physical appearance. Very
few of them, 1% on average, see trained and unskilled jobs in terms of the worker's skills
to his job performance. This shows that wages and one's physical appearance at work
determine one's job. Here is a diagram of how people are judged in terms of their work.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
Figure 3. Judgment on jobs
Furthermore, in this section, the respondents chose several unskilled jobs that many people
are still involved in. As many as 20% of the respondents chose parking attendants (20%)
and laundry workers as unskilled jobs in the community. The third rank is gravedigger
(16%) and coconut climber (9%). These last two jobs are considered unique because not
many in our society want to work in this field.
Figure 4. Kinds of unskilled jobs
According to respondents, these unskilled works can be improved and studied.
Special training needs to be carried out to not rule out the possibility that this work can be
used as a profession for the local community where this work can be used as a
characteristic of specific areas, such as climbing. However, there is no need for a particular
school to do this unskilled job. As many as 43% of respondents agree that this job requires
special skills.
The last part of this needs analysis focuses on what students want when they read a
book about unskilled work. As many as 31% of the 74 respondents said they wanted to
know workers' unique skills. Sharing experiences from people doing so ranks second, 27%.
A small part of the respondents wanted to know about the types of work and their
education level, namely 9% and 4%. Below are aspects students want to know when
reading an English book about a job.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
Figure 5. Aspects of English book
Based on the needs analysis results, the researcher then proceeded to the
Development stage where the resulting product describes many subjects as English
education teaching materials. The systematics of this book are as follows:
1. Job description
Unskilled workers were interviewed about the work they are doing, then it was written
in a character story format.
2. Word Corner
In this section, some words and phrases were given their meaning to make it easier for
readers to understand the reading.
Some evidence that refers to language policy in Indonesia reflects that English is the
first foreign language learned by all Indonesian students. In a tertiary education
environment, Indonesian students have not been able to use English in daily
communication, both in formal and formal contact. Therefore, they are expected to expose
to foreign languages in learning English, not only in class. They are expected to be
involved in the context in which English is used. One of the activities that students might
do is to choose extensive reading material. The ‘Unskilled Jobs’ book may help students
use the language through reading and inform students about jobs around them. Their
involvement in language exposure through interest-based reading can help them develop
language competence.
For future researchers, they can design books based on their cultural background and
provide questions to measure the readers’ understanding in reading.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 2 Tahun 2023
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