AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 1 Tahun 2023
Wulan Samsuri
, Sumarta
, Acep Bahrum
1, 2,3
Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Singaperbangsa Karawang
Jl. HS. Ronggo Waluyo, Puseurjaya, Telukjambe Timur, Kota Karawang 41361
The role of teaching English in senior secondary schools as a component of Indonesian education
policy has increased. The curriculum states that the main objectives of English language education
are to improve students' basic communication skills, to develop English language, or learning,
interests and habits, and to introduce global culture to society. Since language education is based
on interpersonal relationships and communication with others, which stem from self-knowledge
and understanding, exploring oneself together with oneself can be an important professional in the
field. Borg (2003) states that there are several problems related to language education that have not
been studied in contact with teacher cognition. This study is about the teacher's consideration in
making decisions about teaching procedures. This study uses a qualitative research design to collect
data using interviews and observations.
Keyword: decision making; teachers; teaching procedures
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 CC BY-SA International License.
English instruction in senior secondary schools has grown in importance as a part of
Indonesian educational strategy during the past few decades. The aims of English
education, according to the curriculum, generally center on strengthening students'
fundamental communication skills, in developing their English, i.e. studying interests and
habits, and in bringing global culture and customs to society. Exploring oneself together
with oneself can be a professional in language education which is regarded significant for
instructors since it is built on interpersonal interactions and interacting with other people,
which originates from self-knowledge and self-understanding. According to Borg (2003),
there are a number of issues with language education that haven't been looked at from the
standpoint of teacher cognition.
The instructor serves as a source of inspiration for pupils in the classroom,
emphasizing the learning attainment process and guiding them to be able to foster
collaborative learning. Similar to this, instructors must exercise caution and be astute in
their decision-making as learning leaders in order to avoid endangering the many parties
involved. Of course, making decisions is something we frequently have to do in our daily
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 1 Tahun 2023
tasks. Language education is crucial because teachers' attitudes can have a lasting impact
on how they train students in the classroom. When it comes to influencing teachers'
behavior and decision-making processes, belief may be more powerful than knowledge
(Nespor, 1987). This is especially true for decisions about task arrangement and definition.
Indeed, such investigation is likely to shed light on the personalities of these
teachers, their roles in the teaching-learning process, and the things they do to advance
student learning. According to Csikszentmihalyi (1993) in Djoub, Z. (2018), if the
instructor can comprehend what makes him, what drives him, what objectives we pursue,
and how he became a human being, we may build a meaningful future. Teachers have a
part to play in the integrity principle by making choices based on values based on
regulations. However, they also strongly believe in the notion of solidarity, and teachers
always choose what is best for all of their students based on high moral standards. Now, if
their kindness-based ideals are the complete opposite.
Beliefs of teachers towards the curriculum that should be used in their institutions.
Evidence from studies on teachers' curriculum implementation methods demonstrates that
various methods provide various results. According to Shawer (2010), curriculum
variances put student learning, teacher motivation, and professional development at risk.
According to the teacher's perspective, combining the choice of resources, activities, and
instructional styles requires a number of teaching-related components. Therefore, it
appears that belief can influence the decisions made by instructors, which would unify the
relationship between trust and skills in teacher language decision-making. Education RPP
also plays a very important function in providing a framework to facilitate the language
learning process by taking into consideration the beliefs and practices of teachers in
language teaching.
The exploration of teacher professionals who have been viewed as a "one way" of
teaching is influencing how instructors view themselves" (Kincheloe, 2003, p. 47) is
contained in Djoub, Z. (2018). In fact, because teacher identity is so crucial to education, it
might be a valuable research framework in teacher development services. The definition of
teacher identity and how it changes over the course of a teacher's career, however, still
require further explanation. To demonstrate the "knowledge and ideas that underpin
teacher behaviors in practice," teachers' real-world experience is used (Verloop, Van Driel,
& Meijer, 2001, p. 446). Since teachers play a crucial part in ensuring that students learn,
they must be highly professional.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
Vol. 14 No 1 Tahun 2023
Based on analysis by M. Rahimi and H. Weisi (2018). How research practice affects
expert teaching practice: Examining the perspectives of EFL teachers: Although there has
been a surge in interest in teacher research practices in English language teaching (ELT)
settings, it appears that few studies have looked at the attitudes and perspectives of English
as a foreign language (EFL) teachers on the impact of research activities on professional
teaching practice. the current condition of research practice among EFL teachers and how
it affects their professional teaching practices. It focuses on EFL instructors who are
actively engaged in research, which includes reading and conducting it.
As a result, Başar, S. (2021) research concentrates on the key variables that influence
teachers' decision-making abilities when deviating from previously prepared lesson plans.
Additionally, this study aims to ascertain the degree to which teachers' attitudes and
actions regarding veering from class plans are consistent with one another. The study's
conclusions suggest that there are four key category factors that have an impact on
professors leaving their institutions.
As previously indicated, past studies have mostly examined how much teachers'
views and methods in teaching English as a foreign language affect students' learning. So,
in order to keep students engaged, the researcher wants to look into and concentrate on the
experiences of teachers making decisions in practical teaching and the teaching techniques
they use in classroom activities.
Some of the definitions provided above can be used to make the conclusion that
qualitative research is a study that uses verbal elements in the collection of data and
research conclusions. A data collection process was followed by an inductive analysis.
Since the focus of this study is on specific phenomena that take place in educational
contexts, a qualitative methodology was used. The phenomenon in this situation is the
teaching methods used in English classes. The researcher looks more closely at the
evaluation of instructors' methods for teaching English. The benefit of qualitative research
is that it demonstrates how real-world problem solvers respond to complex contextual
descriptions. According to Creswell (2009), qualitative research entails collecting and
interpreting information from subjects while they are in their natural settings. In order to
undertake this study, a descriptive case study.
This research was conducted in Karawang Regency. Three EFL instructors from
SMA located in Karawang participated in this study as participants. They have more than
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
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six years of teaching experience at the school. One of these schools is the best accredited
school in Karawang. There are about 1000 students enrolled in this institution, mostly
majoring in science and social sciences. In addition, there are 37 classrooms, three
laboratories, and a library. All participants are required to lead the class for one hour
during the conference so that researchers can observe their teaching methods. Because they
are all caring educators, their students have a greater obligation to understand the material
in their classrooms.
The semi-structured interview that is conducted before the observation session
begins constitutes the main piece of equipment. At the organization where they work,
participants are individually interviewed. A 20 minute wait is required. I can establish
rapport with the people I interview by using this technique, which will help me provide
high-quality data (Saldana & Omasta, 2018). The purpose of this interview was to provide
more light on the English teacher's initial convictions and how their theoretical training
influenced their teaching strategies and expectations. This approach of collecting data
focuses on examining what students do in class to accomplish their teaching objectives,
how they evaluate the results, and particularly how they choose to apply the processes and
deviate from the predetermined lesson plans.
From the first observation's findings, the teacher only uses the lecture method,
explains the material to the students, and does not involve them in the teaching procedures
that they will carry out. As a result, the researcher has not observed the cooperative
learning teaching procedure being applied by the teacher to the students. In the second
observation of the study, the researcher discovered deeper learning because the teacher had
already begun reflecting on the students to help them maintain their confidence as they
learned. Before moving on, the teacher offers the class 15 minutes to talk in groups. After
that, students advance in groups to provide information for conditional sentences and more
In educational activities, we may observe how the instructor interacts with the pupils
by observing how the teacher approaches the learning process. We can also observe how
the teacher reacts to what he observes around him. According to the findings of the
interviews that were conducted, the teacher implied that there is a reflex that is carried out
at the start of each lesson in the learning process, specifically regarding warming up
activities so that students remember the material. Based on the findings of this interview,
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
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researchers can see the teacher's way of thinking in the learning process because when
teaching, the teacher must think first to set the student up for success.
The stages for beginning learning must be organized because the instructor selects
the topics to be taught and adapts to learning methodologies that are in fact suitable for the
achievement of student learning. in order to ensure that students learn well. According to
the findings of the conducted interviews, the teacher claimed that during the learning
activities conducted in the classroom, the teaching techniques and methods were applied to
students to complete the learning process and enable them to comprehend the subject
matter and what was being explained. Researchers were able to identify patterns and
connections in each element of the teaching methodology or learning strategy employed by
instructors in schools using the findings of the interviews. Cooperative learning, roleplay
learning, speech learning, and distraction learning are some of the teaching techniques or
learning strategies utilized by teachers. However, cooperative learning is what EFL
teachers employ the most frequently.
Because the aim is for students to achieve good learning outcomes, the teacher's
participation in the classroom learning process has a significant impact on managing the
class to ensure that the learning process works smoothly and students take EFL lessons
cheerfully and not with boringly. The circumstances throughout the learning process can
aid the instructor in managing the class and calming down the kids, according to the
interview's findings. In addition, it becomes clear from the interview's results that teachers
must be creative in their lesson plans if they want to draw students into the learning
process. The teacher's talk will be difficult for the pupils to understand, which will have a
significant negative impact on the learning activities.
In order to achieve student learning success in class, teachers want their students to
understand the information being taught through teacher-planned learning activities. A
teacher must be able to make decisions on learning activities and pupils who struggle with
learning with the intention of improving their performance. Researchers were able to draw
conclusions about teacher decision-making in learning activities carried out relating to
teaching procedures and learning processes based on the results of interviews performed.
The interview's findings demonstrate that teachers can firmly decide on their instructional
strategies in a way that supports students and takes into account their needs and skills.
Teachers must also concentrate on students' abilities in order to facilitate and support
students' learning. Based on the findings of the data that researchers have gathered, each
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
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teacher has made decisions on how to teach in schools and how to handle student issues in
the classroom.
By examining the teacher's method of thinking in the actual learning process,
communication is a reflex in the learning process that is crucial to promote good learning
for students. Due to its significance in the process of learning a language, communication
between teachers and students in the classroom must be taken into consideration.
According to Gasparatou (2018), speech actions theory must be applicable to all forms of
interpersonal communication, particularly in the classroom. It is evident from observation
that the teacher frequently automatically comments "excellent work" when children
succeed in learning, demonstrating how the teacher's reflex on what the teacher sees is
quite clear. In order for students to be interested in learning, the teacher's manner of
thinking must be effective.
Making teaching methods easier for teachers also makes it easier for students to
learn, which is one way that teachers may assist students succeed in their learning. As a
result of this study, EFL teachers are applying instructional techniques or cooperative
learning strategies to students. According to Slavin (1996), the effect of cooperative
learning on achievement is very significantly moderated by group cohesiveness. In other
words, students will assist one another in their academic endeavors because they care about
one another and want one another to succeed. Cooperative scripting is therefore one
approach of teaching English vocabulary to kids since it is simple for them to comprehend
and utilize new or unfamiliar language. In this method, students will collaborate with their
The teacher's role is crucial in teaching and learning activities since they require
them to control the class and provide a calm learning environment. The term "classroom
management" is used to describe all the actions teachers do to maintain control over the
class, the behavior of the students, and their learning, according to Martin and Sass (2010).
These include duties like upholding order, addressing misconduct, delivering meaningful
instruction, and attending to the emotional and cognitive needs of the students (Emmer &
Stough, 2001). The secret to defining classroom management issues, according to Kounin
(1970), is "generating a high rate of work involvement and a low incidence of deviancy in
the academic setting" (p. 63). Walker and Shea (1998) concur that a variety of classroom
management strategies are required to address various student behaviors.
Depending on the teacher who teaches, teachers have the right to select instructional
strategies that are appropriate for the needs and skills of the pupils in the school. Planning
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by teachers helps students attain learning objectives through their participation in the
learning process. Because this study examines the factors that teachers take into account
when choosing the teaching methods they employ.
Lesson time has a significant impact on lesson preparations and classroom decisions.
Based on observational notes and interview analysis, the majority of teachers chose to
modify or add to their lesson plans, depending on the activities that would best fit the
remaining lesson time and the needs of the students. The interviews show that teachers
have thought about what kind of taking teaching procedures that are in accordance with the
needs and abilities of students at school
Data gathered from the analysis of the EFL teacher's teacher through observation and
interview analysis. The information relates to the EFL instruction in class XI at SMAN in
Karawang. The teacher's choice to utilize cooperative learning, which is nearly always
used by EFL teachers, as one of the teaching strategies is how the researcher characterizes
the learning processes used by the teacher in the learning activities of the students.
Researchers can extrapolate inferences and suggestions from these data based on the
concepts that have been mentioned in earlier chapters. The decision of the teacher to use
the teaching procedure was examined by the researcher. At the school, EFL learning
activities are conducted using one of four different approaches or procedures. Providing
pupils with clear instructions on how to learn will make it easier to teach them improved
methods of learning English. Researchers have identified four different categories of
learning techniques: cooperative learning, roleplay learning, speech learning, and
distraction learning.
Each teacher has their own perspective on teaching methods, however based on the
outcomes of the data analysis, the teacher responds favorably and falls within the category
of decision-making in instructional practices. Cooperative learning and related roleplay fall
under the category of teaching techniques or learning methods utilized because, based on
these signs, the instructor is able to force pupils to study in groups and talk with friends in
class. Students were able to cooperate well in group activities and discuss topics for
questions and summaries, according to the teacher's observations of cooperative learning.
Based on the findings of interviews, the teacher was also able to offer input and opinions
about the decision-making teaching techniques employed in learning.
AoEJ: Academy of Education Journal
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The researcher has a number of recommendations for English teachers, students, and
upcoming scholars based on the findings of the study. For English teachers, the initial
recommendation is made. While teachers can implement in-class learning activities that are
pertinent to students' needs, they also need to employ media to pique students' interest in
worthwhile learning activities.
Students should heed the second piece of advice. To avoid falling behind their
friends, they must be able to increase their enthusiasm in learning. Students should
concentrate on the superior teaching techniques used by teachers. Students' knowledge and
proficiency of English are improved. The third piece of advice is for upcoming researchers
to take this study as a guide when conducting additional research in the same area.
Researchers believe that in the future.
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